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THE KORAN. SURAH 22. AL-HAJJ*

INTRODUCTORY ARTICLE, TRANSLATED FROM ARABIC AND COMMENTS BY V. D. USHAKOV

Surah 22 is called Hajj, because many of its lines (ayats 25-38) are devoted to an important religious rite of Muslims, designated by this word. Hajj (hajj) is a pilgrimage to Mecca, to the Holy Mosque and to the sacred "black stone" - the Kaaba, one of the five "pillars" (rukn) of Islam, mandatory for every Muslim who is able to perform it.

Other parts of the Surah refer to the need for firmness of faith, the obligation to fulfill the Lord's precepts, the good reward for pious believers, and the severe punishment for sinners and apostates. The surah also speaks about the omnipotence of God and His great deeds as a Creator, and in some verses - about the machinations of evil forces against the Prophet Muhammad and his companions. However, it is noted that hostile forces will be defeated, and the good cause of the young monotheistic religion-Islam-will certainly prevail.

In our time, when certain religious and political circles try to oppose one faith to another, take on the role of indisputable judges on matters of Faith, considering only their religion the best, the most correct, while making aggressive, and sometimes criminal, far-reaching conclusions from these premises, it is very important to pay attention to those ayats of this article. surahs (22: 17,69), from which it follows that God is the Only Judge capable of judging human differences in matters of Faith. Thus, Ayat 22: 17 says: "On the Day of Resurrection, the Lord will judge: those who believe [in the Qur'an], and the Jews, and the Sabeans, [that the stars are worshipped], and the Christians, and those who worship fire, and those who give themselves up to many gods" (22:17). Naturally, it does not say that the Lord will show His mercy to all representatives of these beliefs. However, God's mercy to the righteous Jews, Christians, and Sabeans is described in Verses 2: 62 and 5: 69. Even to the polytheists of Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad, inspired by God, says to them:"God will judge between you on the Day of Judgment concerning your disputes." The idea that God is essentially the supreme Judge permeates many suras of the Qur'an, and it is also expressed in a well-known popular Arabic maxim: 'allahu bas - u-uyhkum "Only God is the Judge and only He judges!"

It is also necessary to pay attention to the fact that in our cruel and unjust age there are so-called believers or those who consider themselves civilized people who destroy temples, shrines and monuments belonging to representatives of other religions. However, Ayat 40 of this sura says: "And if God did not protect the people of some, having resorted to the help of others, then the cells would be destroyed, as well as churches, synagogues and mosques, in which [people] repeatedly repeat the name of the Lord..." (22:40). In other words, this verse clearly shows that in different monotheistic temples people worship the same God ("The Lord's name is repeated"). And if one of the believers takes the liberty to accuse someone, for example, of unbelief, paganism, then he, in fact, puts himself on a par with God, to Whom only the Truth belongs, because He is "a witness to all things" (22: 17), and He will reveal it at the Last Judgment. And what could be more blasphemous than equating oneself with God?

* V. D. Ushakov's translation of other suras of the Qur'an, see: The Qur'an. Surah 20. Ta-ha // East (Oriens). 2000. N 4. pp. 105-115; Koran. Surah 21. Al-Anbiya (the Prophets)//Ibid., 2002, No. 1, pp. 109-120.

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translation

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Merciful

1. O people! You are afraid of your Lord. Indeed, the shaking [of the earth] 1 will indeed happen at this hour 2 - it will be a terrible 3 something!

2. On this day you will see how women who nurse their infants will neglect them, and those who bear their fruit will throw it out . You will also see that people are drunk, but they are not really drunk. However, God's punishment is severe!

3. There are some among the people who enter into disputes about God, having no knowledge [of Faith], and they follow every rebellious devil 4.

4. It is written that whoever makes friendship with Satan, he will lead him astray and plunge him into a fiery flame .5

5. Oh, people! If you are in doubt that the resurrection will take place, then We created you from dust [earlier] 6 , then from a drop of liquid [created], then from a blood clot, and then from the flesh of a small particle whose appearance was not manifested [at first], but [later] completed the view has been restored. [All this] so that We may show you [our power] 7 .

Then in the wombs of [mothers] We keep what We want until the deadline. Then We bring forth Our children ,so that you may mature afterward. And there are some among you who will be laid to rest [by the young], 8 and those who will reach an advanced age when they will no longer know what they used to know .9

Then you will see the earth lifeless, withered, but We pour out water on it, and [the soil] comes to life, swelling up, and it puts out pairs of all sorts of wonderful plants from itself!

6. This is because God is the Truth. 10 He gives life to the dead, and He has power over all things.

7. And because the Hour of Judgment will come - there is no doubt about it-and because God will raise up the dead from their graves.

8. There are some among men who dispute about God, but have no knowledge of it .11 And they have no guide to the straight path, and there is no Book that carries Light.

9. [And there are some among them], [from the Faith] 12 who turn away in pride, 13 to turn away from the way of God [other people]. Dishonor awaits such people in this world, and on the Day of Judgment We will make them taste their fiery punishment!

10. And this is [your recompense] 14 for what your hands used to do 15 . But God does not wrong His servants [in vain] 16 .

I. And there are some among the people who worship God on the borderline [between doubt and faith] 17 . When he gets something good 18, he is satisfied with it 19 . When he is put to the test, he turns to unbelief again .20 [Then] he will suffer losses in this life, and also in the next world. These are clear losses!

12. [And there are some among them] who call out to those besides God, from whom there is neither harm nor benefit, 21-this is a profound error.

13. To him whose harm is greater than his benefit, [such a person] calls. Indeed, the protector is insignificant, and he who is in friendship with him is also insignificant. 22

14. Indeed, your Lord will admit into gardens where streams flow those who believe and do good deeds. After all, God creates what He wills!

15. Let anyone who thinks that God will not support His Prophet 24, either in this life or in the next, stretch a rope to the ceiling 25, and then let him commit suicide 26 . Then let him see 27 whether his tricks can remove the causes of his anger 28 .

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16. And We have sent down [verses of the Qur'an] 29 as clear signs. And they say that God guides whomever He wills to a straight path.

17. On the Day of Resurrection, the Lord will judge between those who believe, the Jews, and the Sabeans, 30 and the Christians, as well as those who worship fire , 31 and those who worship many gods. Indeed, our Lord is Witness to all things.

18. And do you not know that to the Lord 33 all who are in the heavens and on the earth prostrate, 34 as well as the sun , the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts, and the multitude of men? However, many of them are worthy of punishment. But whomever God humiliates, no one will honor him. God truly creates what He wills!

19. Two communities, hostile to each other, entered into a dispute among themselves about their Lord. And garments of fire are made for those who reject God. And from above hot boiling water will be spilled on their heads, -

20. the skin and their entrails will melt in it.

21. N [prepared] iron clubs, [to beat] them 35 .

22. And whenever they wish to go out from there, [to get rid of] an unbearable torment, they will be brought back to it again [and they will say] 36: "Taste the punishment of the Fire!"

23. And as for those who believe and do good deeds, He will admit them to Gardens where streams flow. Their adornments there are bracelets of gold set with pearls, and robes of silk.

24. 37 They were led to beautiful words, 38 and to a straight path of glory.

25. Indeed, those who reject [God] and lead them astray from the path of God, who do not allow them to enter the Forbidden Mosque, which We have ordered to be erected on an equal footing-for those who live near it, and those who come to it from the nomads - and those who, because of their sinfulness, wish to commit blasphemy in it, We will make them taste a cruel punishment.

26. And so We showed Abraham the place where he was to build a house. [Then We commanded him] 40 : "You shall worship nothing but Me, 41 Purify My House and prepare it for those who perform tawaf42 , 43 standing and prostrating, both on the waist and on the ground."

27. About the Hajj, you should proclaim to people that they may come to you on foot and on lean camels and camels from near and far places. ,

28. that they may profit themselves 45 and remember the name of God on the appointed days 46 over what He gave them for food from the cattle 47 . Eat [the meat yourself] you and them you feed the poor wretch.

29. Then let them put their hair and nails in order 48, and then fulfill their vows and walk around the Holy House 49 .

30. These are the [rites of Hajj]. To him who pays homage to the Lord's 50 precepts 51 - [rewarded;] 52 the good things of God 53 . [54 The meat of cattle is lawful for you to eat, except for what you are forbidden [in the Qur'an] .55 So avoid the filthiness of worshipping idols and avoid false words,

31. At the same time, worship only one God, 56 and do not associate other gods with Him. For he who gives other deities to God is like those who have fallen from the sky , and the birds will take them up [and carry them away and throw them into the abyss], or the wind will carry them to distant lands.

32. Such is the lot of the polytheists.]. But the sacrifices of those who are not stingy in offering them to God come from the hearts of the blessed .58

33. For you in the cattle benefit is up to the deadline. And then the time of their slaughter will come near the Holy House 59 .

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34. And We have ordained rites for each of the communities, so that they may mention the name of God over the animal that God has given them for an inheritance. But your God is One God, and you must worship Him. And you, [Muhammad], proclaim good tidings to the submissive

35. And to those whose hearts are filled with fear when the name of God is mentioned; to those who endure the hardships that come upon them; to those who perform prayers [at the appointed time] 61 and from the provision that We give them, [for good deeds] 62 allocates.

36. For you, We have made fat animals an object of sacrifice to God. And you will benefit from them 63 . So remember the name of God over them when they appear 64 in a row. [When you kill them] 65, and they fall on their sides [lifeless] 66, then eat [their flesh] and feed them [other people], both those who are content and those who ask for mercy in humility 67 . This is how We have given you power over the cattle, so that you may be grateful .

37. It is not their flesh that God accepts, nor their blood. He accepts piety from you. This is how He has given you authority over the cattle, so that you may glorify God because He has guided you to a straight path. And proclaim good tidings, O Muhammad, to Him who does good deeds.

38. Verily, our Lord is the Guardian of those who believe. And He will not like anyone who is treacherous, who is ungrateful.

39. It is lawful for him [to fight] 70 against whom they make war, because they have been wronged 71 . And, verily, it is in the power of God to help them.,

40. whosoever is driven out of his homes unjustly, only because they used to say:: "Our Lord is the [One] 72nd God!" And if God did not protect some people by resorting to the help of others, then the cells 73 would be destroyed, as well as churches, synagogues and mosques, in which [people] repeatedly repeat the Lord's name 74 .75 And verily, God will support him who does not help [the cause] of His [Faith]. Truly, God is All-powerful, All-mighty.

41. And those who, if We establish them in the land, will perform the prayer [regularly], pay zakat [in support of the poor] 77, encourage [other people] to do good deeds and turn them away from evil deeds 78. The outcome of the same cases [only] God determines.

42. And if they accuse you of falsehood ,then the people of Noah before them, as well as the Adshpas and Thamudites, accused them of falsehood .

43. And so did those who lived next door to Abraham and to Lot. ,

44. and the inhabitants of Madyan 81 . Moses was also declared a liar. As for those who rejected it, I postponed it 82, and then I struck them down with a punishment. And how terrible was My anger 83 !

45. And how many villages have We destroyed when We did wrong ? Now they are deserted, in ruins lie 84 . And how many abandoned wells and castles that once stood [once, are now overthrown] are there!

46. And do they not travel through these lands, 85 so that their hearts do not perceive, 86 and their ears do not hear? Indeed, the eyes of 87 are not blind, but their hearts that are in the breasts of 88 are blind .

47. And they hasten you to fulfill your punishment. But God does not break His vow. For one day is like unto a thousand years with your Lord, according to the number that is among you. " 89

48. And how many of the 90 villages did I grant respite to when they committed wickedness? Then they were still subjected to a square by Me. And they will come to Me [for Judgment] 91 eventually!

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49. Say to them, " O people! I am indeed a warner to you, making clear to you the signs of the Lord."

50. And for those who believe and do good deeds, there is forgiveness and a worthy provision.

51. But those who seek to defame Our Ayat by showing their powerlessness-they will remain in the Fire of Hell.

52. We have sent messengers and prophets before you. When they did not intend [to transmit the Lord's Word to people], then [distortions] Satan made changes in their speech . However, God nullifies the powers of Satan, and He proclaims His perfect ayats - the omniscient Lord of the Universe, the All-wise!

53. [And He declares His ayats] so that the tricks of Satan, for those in whose hearts there is a disease [of unbelief] 97 and for [people] who are hard-hearted 98, may serve as a test for them. In the opposite [with the Truth] and deep, of course, those who work wickedness!

54. So that those who are endowed with Knowledge may know that the Truth is revealed by your Lord, and that they should believe in Him with humility of heart. And verily, God guides those who believe to a straight path.

55. But those who reject the Faith will always remain in doubt about [Our ayats] 101, until suddenly the Hour of Judgment comes or the punishment of a painful day [one day] overtakes them 102 .

56. It will be in the power of God in this day, and He will judge among men. And those who believe and do good deeds will live in the gardens of Prosperity. 103

57. But for those who reject the Faith and do not recognize Our signs, a humiliating punishment awaits them.

58. And whoever performs hijrah in the name of God and then finds his death in battle or is overtaken by death, the Lord will grant him a good provision. Indeed, our Lord is the Best Giver.

59. And He will bring them into a dwelling place where they will be content. Verily, Lord 106 is All-knowing, All-tolerant.

60. Thus [the Word of God will be fulfilled]! Whoever punishes the wrongdoers to the extent that he himself suffered the wrong, and then is subjected to [new] oppressions, the Lord will certainly help him. 107 Indeed, our Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.

61. And this is because God brings the night into the day, and He brings the day into the night, and because God is All-hearing and All-seeing.

62. This is because God is the Truth, 109 and what they call upon is a lie. And this is because God is Supreme and Exalted.

63. Do you not know that God pours water from the sky, and then the earth becomes green? Indeed, our Lord is All-merciful , All-knowing.

64. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. God truly needs nothing, and He is worthy of praise.

65. Do you not know ,O Muhammad, that God has subjected to you all that is on the earth, and the ships that sail on the sea, according to His command? He does not allow the sky to fall to the ground - [this can happen] only with His permission. God is Most Merciful to mankind, and He is Most Gracious to them.

66. It is He who gave you life, and then He will kill you, and then He will give you life again. Yet man is ungrateful. 111

67. And We have established rites for each of the communities 112 , so that they may perform them. And let them not enter into disputes with you about this 113 . And call upon your Lord, for you are on the right and straight path, verily, [Muhammad].

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68. And if they dispute with you, say, " God is most Knowledgeable about what you do.

69. God will judge you on the Day of Judgment concerning your disputes."

70. And do you not know ,O Muhammad, that God knows all that is in the heavens and the earth? Indeed, it is written in the Book [Primordial] 115 . After all, [the possession of Knowledge] 116 is not a burden, of course, to God!

71. And they worship besides God that about which no argument has been revealed to them. Nor do they have any knowledge of it .118 There will be no intercessor for those who commit wickedness.

72. When 119 clear ayats are announced to them, you see disgust on the faces of those who reject the Faith. They are ready to attack those who proclaim Our Ayat to them. Say, [Muhammad, im]: "Shall I tell you something more terrible than this, the Fire of Hell, which God has promised to those who reject the Faith? And how disgusting is the outcome!"

73. O people! A parable has been given to you , so listen to it: "Indeed, those to whom you address [supplication] other than God, even if they were all gathered together, would not have created a fly. And even if a fly steals something from them, they will not be able to return it to themselves. Indeed, the one who asks has no power, just as the one who asks is weak. " 120

74. And they did not pay due homage to God. Truly, the Lord 121 is All-powerful, All-powerful!

75.And out of men and angels God chooses messengers for Himself. Verily, God is All-hearing, All-seeing.

76. And He knows what was before, and also what will be after . And all the works will be brought before God.

77. O you who believe! Both waist and ground prostrations you make, worship your Lord and perform good deeds. Then, perhaps, you will achieve success.

78. And you show worthy zeal in the name of God. He has chosen you, and He has not put you under any restrictions in your faith. 123 This is the Faith of Abraham, who is your forefather. God 124 called you monotheists, both before and in this Book, 125 so that the Messenger 126 [on the Day of Judgment] 127 would be a witness for you, and you would be a witness for people [others] 128 .

Perform the ritual prayer, make contributions [for the benefit of the poor], seek refuge with the Lord 129! He is your Protector, and He is the best of protectors and intercessors.

comments

1 Tabari interpolation and "Jalalein" (a commonly abbreviated name for the tafsir, authored by Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli and Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti).

2 Tabari states that the "concussion" will occur before the Day of Resurrection. However, he also points out that there is disagreement among pundits about the timing of this calamity. There is an opinion that the calamity will happen in this world before the Day of Judgment comes.

Baidawi explains that the "concussion" must occur just before the sun rises from its setting point. The Jalalein says that after the" strong movement " of the earth, the sun will rise from the west, which will mean the approach of the Hour of Judgment.

3 In the original, the word 'azim, the main meaning of which is "great". As a rule, this word indicates a high degree of positive quality, property. In this context, it is referred to the negative noun "earthquake" (zalzala) in its semantics. Therefore, the definition of a word denoting an "unfavorable" action is translated here by the adjective "terrible", which is usually applied to words with a "negative" meaning.

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4 The word shaitan (plural). ch. shayatin') through a lowercase letter sh means evil spirits hostile to God, leading people astray from the path of righteousness. Their master is Shaitan (Satan, Iblis). See: Piotrovsky M. B. Shayatin / / Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, Moscow, 1991, p. 289; same name. Iblys // Ibid., pp. 81-82.

5 That is, by leading his follower into the path of sin and impiety, Satan will condemn him to the torments of Hell.

6 That is, the first man Adam. Cf.: The Bible. Gen. 2: 7.

7 Tabari, Baidawi and Jalalein interpolation.

8 Tabari and Jalalein interpolation.

9 Wed.: The Qur'an, 16: 70.

10 Even Pythagoras (c. 570 - c. 500 BC) claimed that "the nature of God must consist of the substance of truth" (Hall M. P. Encyclopedia of Masonic, Hermetic, Kabbalistic and Rosicrucian symbolic philosophy / Trans. Tselishcheva V. V. Novosibirsk: VO "Nauka". Siberian Publishing Company, 1993, p. 224). The Bible also says that" God is the Truth " (Jer. 10: 10).

It can be assumed that the" substance of truth " inherent in God may relate to what in modern science is called the "information field", which contains knowledge about "the world of the past and future, lying on the sides of the present..."(Uspensky P. D. Tertium organum. The key to the riddles of the world. Reprints, St. Petersburg Publishing House, 1992, p. 28).

11 Wed.: The Qur'an, 22:3. Used repetition as a stylistic tool. See: Ushakov V. D. Stylistic function of phrase-forming means (on the material of the text of the Koran) / / Voprosy yazykoznaniya. 1984. N 4. p. 99-100.

12 Tafsir-based interpolation. According to Tabari: "... turning away from what they are called to do", i.e. from the sermons of the Prophet Muhammad; according to Baydawi - "turning away from the Truth", according to Jalalein - "turning away in pride from the Faith".

13 In the original, the idiom sana 'itfahu, lit.: "turn your side", " turn away (from someone)"; be proud, show arrogance. The famous philologist and theologian Zamakhshari (1075-1144), as well as the theologian and exegete Baydavi (d. 1286) referred this phrase to the category of figures of speech of a metonymic nature - kinaya. About this artistic tool, see: Ushakov V. D. On some stylistic figures in the works of Abdalkahir Djurjani // Questions of linguistics. 1980. N 5. pp. 72-73.

14 That is, to the sinner.

15 I.e. "you yourself". Metonymic hyphenation is used.

16 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

17 Tabari and Jalalein interpolation.

18 "Good" means: in Tabari - "prosperity in life"; in Jalalein - "health and well-being".

19 According to Tabari, such a person is strengthened and established in Islam (in the belief in the One God).

20 In the original, the unmotivated idiomatic expression 'incalaba' ala uajhihi letters, "to roll over someone's face", i.e., "to turn against one's own face". Tabari and "Jalalein" interpret: "returns to disbelief."

21 That is, to idols.

22 That is, both idols and idolaters are worthless.

23 In the original: "God".

24 I.e. to Muhammad.

25 Letters: "to the sky". I.e., as interpreted by tafsir, - " to the ceiling "(lit.: to the "sky of the house").

26 Letters: "let him cut it off" or " let him cut it off or tear it off." Tabari explains, " then let him strangle himself." This verb is also interpreted in this context by both Baydavi and Jalalein. Baidawi explains this use of the verb kata'a ("to cut", "to cut") by the fact that the strangled person "blocks" (as if cutting himself) the airway.

In Jalalein, the phrase "then to cut" is explained by the words: "that is, to strangle oneself with it (i.e. with a rope) and to cut oneself off from the ground, as (explained) in as - Sihah (authentic hadith).

27 Baidawi rightly interprets the words "let him see" (fa-l-yanzur) as "let him imagine in his soul," since the strangled person cannot see in the physical, material sense of the word. According to religious beliefs, the soul of a deceased person can comprehend what is happening on earth. In this case, the soul of the strangled person comprehends "whether his tricks can eliminate the causes of his anger."

28 This ayat has caused numerous difficulties in its understanding both among Muslim expository theologians and among translators. I. Y. Krachkovsky explicitly states that " the meaning of (ayat. - V. U.) is unclear" (Koran / Translated and commented by I. Y. Krachkovsky, Moscow, 1986, p. 578). In my opinion, these difficulties are

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They are generated, on the one hand, by a twofold understanding of the pronoun man ("the one who"), beginning with ayat. Most exegetes believe that this refers to the enemies of the Prophet Muhammad, the Meccan polytheists, who mockingly asked Muhammad to speed up the provision of help from God. In fact, they did not believe that God would support the Prophet. According to another version, which Baidawi describes in particular, the ayat was "sent down in connection with the impatience of a group of Muslims who wanted to speed up the support of [the Prophet] from God and showed great anger towards the polytheists." In this interpretation, the word "man" does not refer to polytheists, but to Muslims.

On the other hand, the word 'sama' is also ambiguously understood by commentators. It can be perceived in its direct meaning "sky", and then the character of ayat is asked to stretch the rope all the way to the sky, i.e. he is offered something impossible, incredible. However, most Mufassirs assume that we are talking about the "sky of the house", i.e. the ceiling. Nevertheless, the soul of the deceased, if the verb li-yaqta'a (lit: "cut off") is understood as "end life", is able to comprehend the fact that God is the helper of His Prophet and will not leave him without support. After all, the soul of a person, according to beliefs, passes to heaven, otherwise - to the worlds of other dimensions, from where he can see the future and know that God's help will certainly come to Muhammad in a certain time.

Taking into account the difficulties of understanding this verse, I will give comments on it contained in the 2nd edition of the translation of the Quran by M.-N. O. Osmanov and in The Holy Qur-an. English translation of the meanings and Commentary (Medina 1413/1992).

M.-N. O. Osmanov comments: M. Ali and Mauduli analyze in detail the comments of various tafsirs (and Maududi offers quite fantastic interpretations), while the text clearly contains a rhetorical figure that should emphasize the postulate: the connection of Muhammad with God is indissoluble. Possible translation options: 1) "let him tie a rope to the sky, climb up it to the sky, and look"; 2)" let him tie a rope to the ceiling, hang himself with it, and look " (Qur'an / Trans. Osmanova M.-N. O., comment. Osmanova M.-N. O. and Ushakova V. D. Moscow, 1999, p. 734).

The Holy Qur-an comments: "There are certain differences in the interpretation of this ayat. Most commentators agree that the pronoun "him" in the phrase "will not support him" replaces the holy Prophet and that the" one who " at the beginning of the phrase refers to the enemies of Muhammad, who wanted his collapse and withdrawal from active activities. The meaning of Ibn 'Abbaas, which I and many commentators follow, is:" If the enemies of the Messenger of God are enraged by his success, then let them tie a rope to the ceiling of their [home] and hang themselves." Thus, the word sama '65 ("sky") is replaced by the word"ceiling". If the word "sama" is understood as" heaven " (i.e., in its usual meaning), then the meaning will be as follows: if the enemies of the Messenger of God are enraged by the help that he receives from heaven, then let them stretch a rope to heaven and see if they can do so stop helping [God's] people. In other words, they are fools if they think that by their tricks they will be able to prevent [the Prophet's] support from God "(n. 2786, p. 953).

29 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation. In the original version: "his", i.e. the Qur'an.

30 Translator's interpolation based on the definition of Sabeism (see: Dictionary of Foreign Words, Moscow: Russian Language, 1979, p. 450). The Sabeans in the Qur'an are also mentioned in verses 2: 62 and 5: 69. The Holy Qur-an draws attention to the fact that " in these two Ayats, Muslims are mentioned along with Jews, Christians and Sabeans among those who receive the protection and mercy of God. In this verse (22: 17), in addition to these four religions, fire worshippers and polytheists are also mentioned. It does not say that they will receive God's favor, but only that God will pass judgment on the various forms of faith" (n. 2788, p.953). I note that the Qur'an repeatedly states that it is God who will judge who is right and who is wrong, only He is the Supreme Judge. However, people themselves take on the role of judges, declare themselves the most "orthodox", are convinced of their superiority over other people, over carriers of other beliefs, and sow discord and hostility everywhere.

31 The Holy Qur-an comments on: "This is the only place in the Qur'an where fire worshippers (magi, majus) are mentioned. Their cult is very ancient. They regard fire as the purest and most excellent element and consider it a worthy symbol of God. They lived in the Iranian and Central Asian highlands and in the valleys of Mesopotamia. Their religion was reformed by Zarathustra (the exact date of his life is unknown-ca. 6000 BC). Their holy scripture is the Zend Avesta, the Bible of Parsis (i.e. Zoroastrianism. - V. U.). They were "the wise men of the East mentioned in the Gospels "(n. 2789, p. 953).

32-33 In the original version: "God", "to God".

34 Wed.: The Qur'an, 21: 79.

35 Tabari and Jalalein interpolation.

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36 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

37 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

38 According to Tabari and Jalalein, "beautiful words" are defined as the shahada, the formula of monotheism: "There is no god but God." The common final form of the shahada also includes an indication of the messenger of Muhammad: "... and Muhammad is the messenger of God. " See: Kushev V. V. Ash-Shahada / / Islam. Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 296. Baidawi explains that this is the " word of monotheism "(kali-matu t-tawhid).

It is obvious that the monotheism principle is also fundamental for other monotheistic denominations. See the Bible, Deut 6: 4, 35; Exodus 20: 3; Mark 12: 29.

39 I.e. to the Meccan Mosque.

40 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

41 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

Tawaf is one of the rites of Hajj, which consists of walking around the Kaaba. During the Hajj, it is performed twice - at the entrance to Mecca (pgawaf apg-tahiyyah) and at the end of the hajj rites (pgawaf al-wada'). See: Ermakov D. E. Tawaf / / Islam. Encyclopedia, pp. 217-218.

43 Tabari and Jalalein interpolation.

44 In the original idiom: min kupli fajjin 'amikin, lit.: "from any deep gorge", i.e. "from everywhere"," from all sides". See: Baranov Kh. K. Arabic-Russian dictionary. Moscow, 1984. p. 382.

45 Letters: "to be witnesses of self-benefit." According to the Tafsir, the pilgrimage of Muslims to the Kaaba was accompanied by the extraction of worldly benefits in the form of trade transactions, as well as receiving religious and spiritual benefits, which consisted in performing righteous deeds.

46 According to the Tafsir, the " designated days "(ayyamun ma'lumapgun) are ' ayyam apg-tashrik ("days of meat preparation"), i.e., the three days from the 11th to the 13th month of dhu'l - hijjah following the feast of sacrifice (Eid al-'adha), otherwise known as the day of sacrifice. 'eid (yaum) an-nahr - " the feast (day) of the slaughter". 47 According to the Tafsir, camels, cows, and sheep were sacrificed.

47 Letters: "remove dirt". Translated by Baidawi and Jalalein. The Holy Qur-an explains: "Tafas-extra things that grow on the body: nails, hair, etc. [everything] that is not allowed to be removed after Ihram (the pilgrim's entry into a special state at the beginning of the Hajj). All this can be removed on the 10th day of the Hajj, when it ends. This is the rite of completion [of hajj], otherwise the rite of leaving ihram" (p. 2803. p. 957). See: Ermakov D. V. Ihram // Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, p. 118.

49 Letters.: "around the ancient House", - periphrase to indicate the Kaaba. See: Baranov Kh. K. Decree. op. p. 497. We are talking about the tawaf rite (see note 42).

50 Letters: "God".

51 Letters: "sacred", " inviolable "(hurumat). However, Tabari interprets it through the word hudud ("precepts", "commandments", "restrictions", "ordinances"); Baydavi-through 'ahkamuha" His (i.e. God's) commands, ordinances, commandments"; "Jalalein" - through the phrase "i.e. that which is not allowed to be violated".

52 Baydavi interpolation.

53 Letters: "with his Lord."

54 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

55 Letters: "except for what is preached to you.", 2:173; 5:4 - 5; 6:121, 138 - 145.

56 Letters: "being hanifs", i.e. true monotheists. According to the Qur'an, the first monotheist-hanif (even before the emergence of Judaism) was Abraham. The Tafsir of Tabari emphasizes that the ayat refers to sincere, pure monotheism (ayah - ' ikhlas bi-t-tawhidi lahu).

Translator's interpolation. It is based on the fact that birds of prey drop their victims on rocks to kill them, and then eat them.

58 Letters: "But those who make great sacrifices to God, they (i.e., sacrifices. - V. U.) from the piety of hearts". The meaning of ayat, according to the Tafsirs, is that the livestock sacrificed should be well-fed, have no flaws, etc.

59 In the original al-bayt al - 'atik (lit.: "the ancient house"). See note. 49. According to the Tafsir, the slaughter took place near the Meccan temple. As is known, this rite is performed in the Mina Valley. See: Rezvan E. A. 'Eid al -' Adha / / Islam. Encyclopedia. pp. 88-89; also known as: Manasik // Ibid., p. 157; Ermakov D. V. Al-Hajj//Ibid., p. 261.

In the original, the verb form of the 3rd person singular, referring in this case to God. The rite of sacrifice was also prescribed in Judaism. 16: 2 et seq.: "And thou shalt offer the passover unto the Lord thy God, of flocks and herds, in the place which the LORD shall choose, that thou mayest eat it."-

page 128

His name was written there." "However, all Jewish sacrificial rites were banned after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (70 AD)." The Samaritans / / Asia and Africa today. 1998. N 5. P. 77). In the Gospel, however, it is pointed out that the sacrifice of "the blood of bulls and goats" cannot destroy sins (Hebrews 10: 4). Christ says: "Burnt offerings and sin offerings are not acceptable to you" (Hebrews 10:6).

61 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

62 Tabari, Baidawi and Jalalein interpolation.

63 According to the Tafsir, believers will benefit from sacrifices in the earthly world and will be rewarded by the Lord in the Hereafter.

64-65 Jalyalein interpolation. Tabari and Baidawi interpolation.

67 The Holy Qur-an comments on: "Both in begging and charity, there is ethics. Impudent and impudent begging is in no way approved, even though charity includes the relief of all kinds of suffering, whether deserved or undeserved. However, both those who humbly ask for mercy and those who accept alms with gratitude and satisfaction are given special attention. The granting of mercy should not be ostentatious and should not involve getting rid of annoying requests. It should take into account real needs and respond to them" (p. 2814. p. 960).

68 In the original: "To God."

69 In the original: "To God."

70 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

71 According to the Tafsir, it is Muhammad and his companions who were threatened by the polytheists. The Jalalein indicates that this is the first ayat revealed in connection with jihad.

72 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

73 Tabari and Jalalein indicate that we are talking about" monastic cells "(sauami ' ar-rukhban), i.e. "cells" in this case metonymically indicate "monasteries".

74 In the original: "God's".

75 The Holy Qur-an states that "the small Meccan community not only fought for its existence against the Quraysh of Mecca, but also defended the very Belief in the Only True God... "(p. 2817, p. 962). Paradoxically, this seems to be the only place where the translator does not contrast God and Allah and translates the Arabic word 'Allah' into English-God, i.e. God. Here the translator does not fall into two - godism (otherwise, into paganism), but finally recognizes that there is no God and Allah, but there is One God, - in Arabic 'allahu, in English-God.

I note that the opponents of monotheism, although they hide their pagan nature, ignore such verses in the Koran, which clearly state that there is no God and Allah, but there is one God, to whom they pray in monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques.

76 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

Zakat 77 (lit.: "purification") - a tax in favor of needy Muslims. See: Bolshakov O. G. Zakat / / Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, p. 194.

78 The Holy Qur-an comments on: "Prescribing what is good and forbidding what is bad" is an essential duty of the Muslim Ummah (i.e. community. - V. U.) and represents one of the main purposes for which [etaumma] was erected (See Fig..: 3:104, 110; 9:71, 111 - 112; 22:41 ( p. 2819. p. 963).

79 The Holy Qur-an comments: "It is nothing new that the Prophet of God (i.e. Muhammad) is accused of lying. This has happened at all times: for example, with Noah (7: 64); Hud, the prophet of the Adites (7: 66); Salih, the prophet of the Thamudites (7: 76); Abraham (21: 55); Lot (7: 82); Shuaib, the prophet of the inhabitants of Madyan (7: 85) and with the people of Haika (15: 78). The Qur'an specifically refers to events related to Moses, whose people lived to the time of our Prophet (i.e., Muhammad) and to the present day, a people who often rebelled against Moses (2: 49-61)" (p. 2820, p.963).

80 See note. 67 by Ayat 21: 71 // East (Oriens). 2002. N 1. P. 113.

81 Madyan - "territory in the north-west of Arabia, on the coast to the south of the Sinai Peninsula" (Piotrovsky M. B. Koranic tales, Moscow, 1991, pp. 75-76). Shu'aib, a fellow tribesman, was sent by the Messenger of God to their Madyanite inhabitants. The pagan Madyanites, who did not recognize the One God and His Messenger Shu'aib, were severely punished for their disbelief. See also: Ibragim T., Efremova N. Muslim sacred history from Adam to Jesus. Moscow, 1996. pp. 171-177; Piotrovsky M. B. Shu'ayb / / Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, p. 301.

82 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

83 Letters: "My denial/non-recognition".

page 129

84 Letters: "on their roofs". Baidawi explains that the walls of their homes collapsed on the roofs, because first the roofs fell, and then the walls of the houses fell.

85 An indication that the Meccans, whose main occupation was the caravan trade, passed by the ruins of villages that had been overthrown for the sins of their inhabitants.

86 Hearts, according to the Arabs, are not only sensory organs, but also "receptacles" of the mind.

87 In the original: "gazes "(al - ' absar).

88 Attribution of "blindness" to "hearts" allowed the Arab medieval scholar Ibn Asir (1163-1239) to consider this expression a figure of speech. See: Ushakov V. D. Phraseology of the Koran (Experience of comparing the phraseological expressions of the Koran and the Arabic classical language). Moscow, 1996. pp. 86-87.

89 I have pointed out that in the Qur'an, as in the Bible, there are indirect references to the existence of "many worlds." These can be worlds of other time and space dimensions. The Bible, in the Second Epistle of the Apostle Peter, says: "This one thing must not be hidden from you, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like one day" (2 Peter 3:8). See also Psalm. (89: 5) and the Qur'an (32:5; 70:4). For more information, see: Ushakov V. D. Divinnoe Znanie v Korane i Novom Zavete [Divine Knowledge in the Koran and the New Testament]. 1996. N 1; same name. On the esoteric in the Koran and in the Bible / / Peoples of Asia and Africa. 1999. N 9. P. 49.

90 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

91 Baydavi interpolation.

92 That is, to the people of Mecca.

93 Letters: "I am a warner who explains." This refers to the explanation of the ayats (signs) of the Lord. This is what interpreter interpolation is based on.

94 I.e. prophets and messengers.

95 Letters: "in his (i.e., the prophet or Messenger. - V. U.) intention / desire" (fi ' umniyyatihi). Translation-according to tafsirs.

96 In the original: "God".

97 According to the Tafsir, these are those who have hypocrisy and doubt in their hearts, and those who sow discord.

98 According to the Tafsir, this refers to the polytheists.

99 Tabari and Baidawi tafsir-based interpolation. According to the Jalalein, this is a dispute between the Prophet and the polytheists.

100 Tabari: "Knowledge of God"; "Jalalein" - "on monotheism and the Qur'an".

101 In the original: "his", i.e., according to the" Jalalein " - the Qur'an, in other words, about its content, its ayats. According to Baidawi, the pronoun " his " can replace either the Qur'an or the Messenger.

102 In the original, the word "akim", the main meaning of which is "barren", "not giving results". Tabari explains: "A day that is not followed by night (i.e., the Day of Judgment. - V. U.). They also say that this is the day of the "Battle of Badr", which took place in March 624, when the Meccan pagans were defeated. That is, this day did not bring them "good fruits" (See: Bolshakov O. G. Badr // Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, p. 36). Baidawi also believes that this is the "Day of Badr" and explains that it is called " barren "because on this day" the children of the wives of the polytheists and they (i.e. wives) were killed. - V. U.) became like barren women." The Jalalein comments: "This is the Day of Badr, which did not bring good to the polytheists , and it is like a barren wind (i.e. dry wind), which does not bring good, or it is the Day of Resurrection, after which there will be no night." In this ayat, the word "akim" is translated by the adjective "woeful", i.e. "one who does not give good results".

103 I.e. in Paradise.

104 The word 'allahu '('God') is translated as 'Lord' twice in the ayat.

105 In the original, the word "mudhal" means " a place where someone is introduced." According to the Tafsir, and according to the context, it means Paradise.

106 In the original version: "God".

107 The word'allahu '('God') is translated twice in the ayat as 'Lord'.

108 The meaning of ayat is that God can increase or shorten the length of the day or night, respectively.

109 See note 10.

110 In the original version: "God".

111 " Interpolation by "Jalalein". This Tafsir explains: "[A person], i.e. a polytheist, is not grateful to God for His bounties, because he rejects monotheism (at-tawhid)."

112 Wed. The Qur'an, 22: 34.

page 130

113 That is, the polytheists of Mecca are invited not to quarrel with the Prophet Muhammad.

114 In the original unit form: "sky".

115 Speech about the Heavenly Tablet (al-lauch al-mahfuz) kept by God, about the Book in which both the past and the future are recorded. See: Frolov D. V. Muslim aesthetics and the Koran // East (Oriens). 1992. N 6. P. 85.

116 Interpolation by "Jalalein".

117 Tabari interpolation. He explains: "There is no proof in any of the Books revealed to His Messengers that they are idols. - V. U.) - deities."

118 The Ayat is about the idolatrous Meccans.

119 I.e. to the Meccans.

120 That is, both idolaters and idols are helpless. See note 29.

121 In the original version: "God".

122 See note. 34 to Ayat 21: 28 / / East (Oriens). 2002. N 1. S. 1 I.

123 The point is that Islamic regulations, regulations and rituals are not burdensome for Muslims.

124 In the original: "He". According to the tafsirs and based on the context, it is about God.

Note that G. S. Sablukov translated the word al-Muslimun as "submissive", which is quite true. Sablukova G. S. Kazan, 1993, p. 627.

Most translators translate the word al-Muslimunah used here as "Muslims". However, in the Qur'an, the word "al-muslimunah" also means "monotheists", "surrendering to the One God". In this case, we are talking about the scriptures revealed earlier than the Qur'an, and in this ayat we can only talk about monotheists.

125 That is, in the Scriptures revealed before and in the Qur'an.

126 i.e. Muhammad.

127 Baydavi and Jalalein interpolation.

128 Cf.: The Qur'an, 2: 143.

129 In the original, " With God."


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