Libmonster ID: UZ-1028
Author(s) of the publication: K. V. ORLOVA, E. N. BADMAEVA

At the end of 2001, Kalmykia celebrated the 60th anniversary of the Kalmyk Institute for Humanitarian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The decision to establish the Institute was made in June 1941. However, the occupation of a significant part of the territory of Kalmykia during the Great Patriotic War, as well as the deportation of the Kalmyk population in December 1943 to the eastern regions of Russia did not allow the institute to expand its activities. Nevertheless, the first director of the Institute was appointed Candidate of Philological Sciences I. K. Ilishkin and recruited a staff of 16 people.

In January 1957, a decree of the RSFSR government was issued on the restoration of the Kalmyk Autonomous Region as part of the Stavropol Territory, and in 1958 the region was transformed into the Kalmyk ASSR. After the restoration of the republic, it could not be about reviving the institute, but actually about creating a new scientific institution. It was headed by Professor B. K. Pashkov. I. K. Ilishkin, who succeeded him a year later, headed the Institute for more than 20 years. During this time, the Institute has prepared 42 candidates and five doctors of sciences, and under its leadership has published over 160 scientific papers on the history, language, literature and culture of Kalmykia. The Kalmyk Research Institute of Language, Literature and History worked in two main areas: Kalmyk linguistics, literary studies, folklore studies; history, ethnography, archeology, education and sociology.

Over the 60 years of its existence, the institute has changed its name several times, and its status has also changed, which is primarily due to the expansion and deepening of scientific research topics. Until 1978, the Institute was mainly engaged in the development of the language, literature and history of the Oirats and Kalmyks. Since 1978, the Kalmyk Research Institute has been renamed the Institute of History, Philology and Economics, since in addition to historical and philological research, it began to conduct research on the problems of socio-economic transformations in the republic, the state and prospects for the development of certain sectors of its economy. From 1990 to 1996, the Institute was called the Kalmyk Institute of Social Sciences and was part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. From 1999 to the present, it is the Kalmyk Institute for Humanities Research (KIGI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Institute has six major scientific divisions : departments of history with three sectors (history of Kalmykia, ethnology, and archeology), Mongolian studies, linguistics, literary studies, and folklore studies, the Jangar Research Center, and the Center for Ethnosocial Studies.

The study of the ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Oirats and Kalmyks, the comparative typological study of their material and spiritual culture in the context of Central Asian and Lower Volga ethnic ties and contacts, and the scientific understanding of the place of the ethnic group in these two areas of historical residence are priority areas of the Institute's historical division.

Analysis of the current state of the Kalmyk epic "Dzhangar" has shown the urgent need for its preservation, further comprehensive study and popularization. The scientific center "Jangar", established in 1996, is going to solve these problems.

The Department of Folklore Studies studies ancient epic traditions in comparative historical terms, their evolution and transformation. A 12-volume Collection of Kalmyk Folklore is being prepared for publication.

The main problems of the Department of Linguistics are special research on the development of the Kalmyk language, the creation of a lexicographic base, which is the basis for the preparation and publication of various dictionaries, from Oirat to modern Kalmyk.

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Founded in 1977, the Department of Mongolian Studies is engaged in comparative typological studies of Mongolian languages, philological research of old written monuments. The research of the department's employees is also applied, in particular, Old-written Kalmyk (Oirat) and Tibetan languages are taught in schools of the republic according to programs compiled by the department's employees.

The main topics of the Center for Ethnosocial Research established in March 2001 are the most important socio-economic issues, forecasting and expertise of the economic and social policy of the Republic of Kalmykia and the region, state and legal aspects of national development and interethnic relations.

The scientific library and scientific archive of KIGI RAS are dynamically developing and meet the requirements of the time. The scientific library is the only institution of Oriental studies of this type in the region, it contains more than 50 thousand titles of rare books published in various years (starting from 1700). The library's collection is constantly replenished with books in both Eastern and Western European languages. There are almost all known editions of the epic "Jangar" here, starting with the publication of B. Bergmann in German (1805) and ending with publications of recent years.

The scientific archive of KIGI RAS stores documents, ethnographic, folklore and linguistic materials, and diary entries of researchers. Recently, the archive was separated into an independent scientific division - the manuscript fund, which included a collection of manuscripts and woodcuts in the old written Mongolian, Oirat and Tibetan languages. The collection of written sources includes about a thousand items of storage, and their cataloging is currently underway. Compared to the St. Petersburg and Ulaanbaatar collections, the Kalmyk collection is negligible.

The collection of manuscripts and woodcuts was supplemented by both entire collections and individual manuscripts, mainly gifts from former Gelyung priests, as well as connoisseurs and lovers of Mongolian antiquity. The collection contains many photocopies of manuscripts and printed materials brought by I. K. Ilishkin from Poland. In 1969, I. K. Ilishkin was in Krakow, where he worked with the archive of the outstanding Mongolian scholar, full corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, full member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Professor of Lviv University V. L. Kotvich. The main part of the archive brought by I. K. Ilishkin is samples of folk literature, the newspaper "Krasny Kalmyk", the magazine "Oiratskiye Izvestiya".

In connection with the celebration in 1999 of the 400th anniversary of the outstanding scientist, educator, political and religious figure Zaya Pandita and the 350th anniversary of the Kalmyk script "Todo bichig", the Zaya Pandita Museum of Traditional Culture was opened. Currently, this institution is included in the museums of the Russian Academy of Sciences and receives scientific, methodological and financial support from the Museum Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last year, the Institute opened postgraduate courses in the following specialties: national history, languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation (Kalmyk language) and languages of the peoples of foreign countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, Native Americans and Australia (Mongolian languages). The Institute has received a certificate of state accreditation of a scientific institution.

So, we have passed a glorious and at the same time thorny path of formation and development of humanitarian science in the republic. And we can only repeat the fair and accurate words of the Vice-rector of St. Petersburg University, Professor V. Kasevich: "KIGI RAS is the eyes with which the Kalmyk people peer into their language, culture, and history."

In recent years, the Institute has held a number of international forums, including the international scientific conferences "History and Culture of the Mongolian peoples: sources and traditions", "Buddhist culture and world civilization on the threshold of the third millennium".

On September 8-11, 2001, as part of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Institute, the international scientific forum "Nomadic Civilization of the Great Steppe: a Modern Context and Historical Perspective" and the scientific conference "Kalmyks and their Neighbors in the Russian State" were organized with the financial support of the Government of the Republic of Kalmykia and the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (grant N 01-01-14025).

The main report at the plenary session was made by the Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Kalmykia A. Dorzhdeev. In the report "Nomadic civilization of the Great Steppe: origins, problems, prospects", he highlighted the origins, history of nomadic civilizations, as well as the current state of the world.-

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urgent problems of the Kalmyk economy, in particular, pasture animal husbandry. The Kalmyk steppe is part of the Great Silk Road, along which there were powerful migrations of the population. This steppe was developed in the Paleolithic era; the last people who moved here were the Oirats, the ancestors of the Kalmyks. One of the most important tasks of studying the problems of nomadic civilization of the Great Steppe A. Dorjeev considers the development of strategies and tactics for using the experience of nomadic civilization in the practice of modern society on the basis of an integrated approach.

A. S. Zheleznyakov (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) in his report "Historical context of the development of the Mongolian civilization" gave his vision of the borders of civilizations and outlined the Mongolian civilization in a world-historical context. V. V. Graivoronsky's report "On the problems of nomadism in modern Mongolia"aroused considerable interest. G. S. Yaskina (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) spoke about the enclaves of nomadic civilization in individual countries on the example of Mongolia. A. N. Komandzhaev (KSU) devoted his speech to Kalmyks ' economic traditions. Having analyzed the historical experience, he called for a more thorough study of the economic cultures of the peoples of Russia in the XXI century. E. V. Boikova (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) devoted her speech to the interaction of civilizations in the modern world on the example of Mongolia and Russia. Scientists from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Makhachkala, Krasnoyarsk and other Russian cities also made other equally informative presentations.

Then work began on five sections: "Peoples of Southern Russia: past and present", "Language as a means of cultural transmission: written and oral traditions", "Nomadic civilization and the Eurasian world", "Historical and Cultural heritage of the Mongolian peoples", and " Man and society: current trends in environmental, ethno-social and economic development development".

As part of the anniversary celebrations, a round table was held to discuss problems and prospects for the development of science in the region.

The participants of the international forum came to the conclusion that studying the phenomenon of nomadism and the history of the economy and culture of the Kalmyks as representatives of the Mongolian-speaking world in the European south of Russia is an urgent task.


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K. V. ORLOVA, E. N. BADMAEVA, KALMYK INSTITUTE FOR HUMANITARIAN STUDIES OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES // Tashkent: Library of Uzbekistan (BIBLIO.UZ). Updated: 28.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 20.07.2024).

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